Gist Enterprise Ontology

The minimalist GIST Upper-ontology is a smart business ontology (in OWL) that will allow you to create and query your own graph database elegantly. Indeed, all the following semantics are being used to build efficient applications driven by a Knowledge Graph that is loaded in a triple store.

Premium free ontology

No Membership is required in order to use the gist Enterprise Ontology (currently 9.2.0) in your business as it's licensed under Creative Commons and all the most common semantics for any smart data management system are free to download.

Nevertheless, in order to import the financial concepts and accounting principles to your premium ontology, we can only advice you to buy the gist:Accounting ontology for $49 because you will catch up faster to your core business model.

This investment is worthwhile doing, I am interested indeed.

What's Included?

Properties

For describing typical characteristics of the object:

about actual affectedBy affects allocatedBy allows aspectOf basedOn categorizedBy characterizedAs communicationAddresOf conformsTo connectedTo denominator describedIn directPartOf directSubTaskOf end expressedIn fromAgent fromPlace geoContainedIn geoContains geoDirectlyContainedIn geoOccupiedBy geoOccupies governedBy governs hasAltitude hasAmount hasBuyer hasCommunicationAddress hasContractorFor hasEmployee hasGoal hasMagnitude hasMember hasNavigationalChild hasNavigationalParent hasPart hasPrecision hasPreferredTerm hasSeller hasStandardUnit hasStreetAddress hasSubCategory hasSubTask hasSuperCategory hasUoM identifiedBy identifies madeUpOf memberOf multiplicand multiplier numerator occuredAt of offsetToUniversal offspringOf orderedMemberOf parentOf partOf party permanentGeoOccupiedBy planned precedes preferredTermOf prevents produces recognizedBy recognizes renderedOn requires sameTimeAs start streetAddressOf strictlyPrecededBy subTaskOf timeZoneStandardUsed toAgent toPlace trigerredBy worksFor


  • about
  • Subject matter of a document


  • actual
  • When something did occur, therefore noting an historical event

  • actualEnd
  • SubPropertyOf

    When something did end, therefore noting an historical event.

  • hasDeathDate
  • SubPropertyOf

    Date a living thing died.

  • actualStart
  • SubPropertyOf

    When something did start, therefore noting an historical event.

  • hasBirthDate
  • SubPropertyOf

    Date a living thing was "born" (or germinated, for plants).

  • lastModifiedOn
  • SubPropertyOf

    Date that something was modified.

  • recordedOn
  • SubPropertyOf

    Date that something was posted, not necessarily the date it occurred. Must be after the occurred date, but could be before or after the planned date. (Unusual, but I could record today that I expected to be paid last week.)


  • affectedBy
  • affects
  • the subject has or had or will have an effect on the object


  • allocatedBy
  • Connection between an ID and the thing that minted the ID. It may be a person or organization, or could be an algorithm (next available or random number generator)


  • allows
  • The intention (say a grant) allows a particular kind of activity (for instance egress)


  • aspectOf

  • basedOn
  • Pointer to the thing something was derived from.


  • categorizedBy
  • Points to a taxonomy item or other less formally defined class.


  • characterizedAs
  • The kind of Behavior that took place during an Event.


  • communicationAddresOf

  • conformsTo
  • The subject conforms to the Object, e.g. meet an obligation, meet terms of an offer, adhere to a specification


  • connectedTo
  • A non owning, non causal, non-subordinate (ie. peer to peer) relationship.


  • denominator
  • Relates a RatioUnit such as meters/second to the denominator Unit (e.g. second).


  • describedIn

  • directPartOf

  • directSubTaskOf

  • end
  • Connects the subject to its end time.

  • actualEnd
  • SubPropertyOf

    When something did end, therefore noting an historical event.

  • hasDeathDate
  • SubPropertyOf

    Date a living thing died

  • plannedEnd
  • SubPropertyOf

    A date/time that was at least at some point in time in the future. It may be in the past now, but when we planned it, it was in the future.

    NOTE: Most frequently applies to Event(s) and Offer(s). E.g. a conference or sale offer.


  • expressedIn

  • fromAgent
  • The source of a message or shipment


  • fromPlace

  • geoContainedIn

  • geoContains
  • TRANSITIVE

    Transitive version of geoDirectlyContains

  • geoDirectlyContains
  • SubPropertyOf

    The subject geospatially contains the object. E.g.the area of a city contains the area of its neighborhoods


  • geoDirectlyContainedIn

  • geoOccupiedBy

  • geoOccupies
  • permanentGeoOccupies
  • SubPropertyOf


  • governedBy

  • governs
  • The subject controls or inhibits the object in some way


  • hasAltitude
  • Distance above sea level


  • hasAmount

  • hasBuyer

  • hasCommunicationAddress
  • Points to a general class of places you can send messages including postal addresses, fax numbers, phone numbers, email, web site, etc.


  • hasContractorFor

  • hasEmployee

  • hasGoal

  • hasMagnitude
  • To have a comparable numerical value. Each magnitude has a unit.


  • hasMember
  • Relates a Collection to its member individuals.

  • hasOrderedMember
  • INVERSE FUNCTIONAL

    SubPropertyOf

    An inverse functional version of hasMember to ensure that no OrderedMember can be in more than one OrderedCollection., which can quickly lead to problems.


  • hasNavigationalChild

  • hasNavigationalParent
  • Used for informal hierarchical taxonomies. Supports polyhierarchies

  • hasUniqueNavigationalParent
  • FUNCTIONAL

    SubPropertyOf

    Used for taxos that must have single parents


  • hasPart
  • TRANSITIVE

    The transitive version of hasDirectPart

  • hasDirectPart
  • SubPropertyOf

    The relationship between a whole and a part where the part has independent existence.

    NOTE: Use this property to directly associate parts. hasPart is the transitive version.

    NOTE: No cascading delete.


  • hasPrecision
  • Links a Magnitude to the degree of accuracy of the numeric value. This allows for fuzzy numbers. All magnitudes have a precision. Usually we don't record them. When we do this, it will be a value whose extent covers 2 standard deviations around the stated magnitude

    EXAMPLE: Temperature precise to tenth of a degree C; TimeInstant precise to 24 hours.

    NOTE: Most frequently apples to Magnitude(s) and TimeInstant. Could also apply to a measurement.


  • hasPreferredTerm
  • FUNCTIONAL

    If there are many terms for a concept or specific instance, this is the one to use.


  • hasSeller

  • hasStandardUnit
  • For a complex unit refers to a unit that has all the component parts in SI

  • hasBaseUnit
  • SubPropertyOf

    Relates a UnitOfMeasure to its BaseUnit. This indicates what kind Unit something is, e.g. saying that a furlong hasBaseUnit meter says it is a DistanceUnit.

    EXAMPLE: saying that a furlong hasBaseUnit meter says it is a DistanceUnit.


  • hasStreetAddress
  • A place that can be found on a map, has geo coordinates; you could live or work there.


  • hasSubCategory

  • hasSubTask
  • TRANSITIVE

    A task that is part of a larger task. The time frame of the subtasks may overlap but may not extend beyond the timeframe of the parent task. A subtask may be part of more than one parent task.

  • hasDirectSubTask
  • SubPropertyOf


  • hasSuperCategory
  • Categories linked in this way are to represeent true sub types. The categories aren't subtypes but classes defined by a supercategory will be a superclass of one derrived from its sub

  • hasUniqueSuperCategory
  • FUNCTIONAL

    SubPropertyOf

    Used for taxos that must have single parents


  • hasUoM
  • Which unit of measure you are using. All measures are in some uom, even if we don't know what it is initially.


  • identifiedBy
  • INVERSE FUNCTIONAL

    This is like a uri: a thing can have more than one ID, but each of the IDs must refer to a unique thing.


  • identifies

  • madeUpOf
  • as in the vase is made up of clay


  • memberOf

  • multiplicand
  • Relates a ProductUnit such as square mile to the second of two units multiplied together (e.g. mile).


  • multiplier
  • Relates a ProductUnit such as square mile to the first of two units multiplied together (e.g. mile)


  • numerator
  • Relates a RatioUnit such as meter(s)/second to the numerator Unit (e.g. meter).


  • occuredAt
  • The geospatial place where something happened


  • of

  • offsetToUniversal

  • offspringOf

  • orderedMemberOf

  • parentOf

  • partOf
  • TRANSITIVE

  • party
  • The people or organizations participating in an agreement or obligation

  • getter
  • SubPropertyOf

  • giver
  • SubPropertyOf


  • permanentGeoOccupiedBy

  • planned
  • Dates that were in the future at the time they were made.

  • plannedEnd
  • SubPropertyOf

    A date/time that was at least at some point in time in the future. It may be in the past now, but when we planned it, it was in the future.

    NOTE: Most frequently apples to Event(s) and Offer(s). E.g. a conference or sale offer.

  • plannedStart
  • SubPropertyOf

    A date/time that was at least at some point in time in the future. It may be in the past now, but when we planned it, it was in the future.


  • precedes
  • A generic ordering relation indicating that the Subject has the same order as or comes before the Object. The 'greater than or equal to' symbol is often used for this relation.

  • strictlyPrecedes
  • SubPropertyOf

    A generic ordering relation indicating that the Subject comes before the Object, it may not be of equal rank. The greater than symbol is often used for this relation.


  • preferredTermOf

  • prevents
  • The intention (say a law) is intended to prevent this kind of behavior (say jaywalking)


  • produces
  • The subject creates the object.

    EXAMPLE: a task produces a deliverable.


  • recognizedBy
  • The entity that formally acknowledges the existence of, as the State recognizes the existence of a particular company

  • directlyrecognizedBy
  • SubPropertyOf


  • recognizes

  • renderedOn

  • requires
  • An intention that sets out a state of satisfaction (you are required to drive on right side of the road)


  • sameTimeAs
  • We can have two local time instants refer to the same time, the same universal time.


  • start
  • Connects the subject to its start time.

  • actualStart
  • SubPropertyOf

    When something did start, therefore noting an historical event.

  • hasBirthDate
  • SubPropertyOf

    Date a living thing was "born" (or germinated, for plants).

  • plannedStart
  • SubPropertyOf

    A date/time that was at least at some point in time in the future. It may be in the past now, but when we planned it, it was in the future.


  • streetAddressOf

  • strictlyPrecededBy

  • subTaskOf

  • timeZoneStandardUsed
  • the "timezone" with Daylight savings adjust


  • toAgent
  • Comment: this is not the inverse of fromAgent. A message can be from someone. If we made it the inverse the person would be "to" the message


  • toPlace

  • trigerredBy
  • a property that describes what would happen to trigger the contingent obligation. In most cases, before the Contingent becomes an Obligation, the triggered by event is a planned event (that is it hasn't happened yet -- if it had happened the contingency would no longer be contingent. In most cases it will be a ContingentEvent


  • worksFor
  • contractorFor
  • SubPropertyOf

  • employedBy
  • SubPropertyOf



    Classes

    Category CoherentUnit Collection Commitment Content Geo Point Geo Region Geo Segment Geo Volume Intellectual Property Intention Language Magnitude Organization Physical Identifiable Item Physical Substance PhysicalThing Place Room SchemaMetaData Social Being Template Time Instant Time Interval Unit of Measure


  • Category
  • SubClass of

    A concept or label used to categorize other instances informally. Things that can be thought of as types are usually Categories.

    EXAMPLE: Tags used in folksonomies; formal definitions from other systems.

    NOTE: Often a 'bucket' can be modeled either as an owl:Class or as a gist:Category. Use the latter if you don't care much about the formal structure of the different types, or if there is a whole hierarchy of types that are going to be managed by a group separate from the ontology developers. The formal structure may be defined elsewhere and linked to, if necessary.

  • Aspect
  • SubClass of

    A very general term for the characteristic of something that is being measured. E.g., property (height) or a process (cycle time) or a behavior (loyalty).

  • Behavior
  • SubClass of

    A way of categorizing events. E.g., differentiating drilling versus cutting.

  • Degree Of Commitment
  • SubClass of

    The difficulty of reversing a commitment.

    EXAMPLE: A car rental typically has a lower degree of commitment than an airfare reservation.

  • General Media Type
  • SubClass of

    The real-world media type for content.

    EXAMPLE: audio, still image, video, textual, physical (e.g., a statue), or performance (i.e. a play). Or it could be oil or pastel for a painting.

  • Medium
  • SubClass of

    A physicality on which a work could be implemented or exposed. E.g., paper, clay, or a computer monitor.

  • MIME Type
  • SubClass of

    A digitized type that computer applications can recognize.

  • Ordinal Member
  • SubClass of

    A member of an Ordinal Collection. It necessarily precedes or is preceded by another Ordinal Member in the same collection. (This last condition cannot be formally stated in OWL).

  • Product Category
  • SubClass of

    Any of many ways of categorizing products, including models, NATO product codes, and the like.

  • Tag
  • SubClass of

    This is for folksonomy type terms, which can be made up on the fly by users.

  • CoherentUnit
  • A unit that is expressed in units that have no conversions. It may be a simple unit. It may also be a product or ratio unit that bottoms out in simple units.

    EXAMPLEs: a simple unit: kilogram

    EXAMPLEs: the standard unit for acceleration is meters per square second (feet per square second requires a conversion)

    NOTE: coherent unit is the physics term for this, informally you might think of it as the standard unit for a given dimension.

    NOTE: in principle, the CoherentUnit for a ProductUnit or RatioUnit can be inferred by recursively decomposing the products and ratios into their respective CoherentUnits, bottoming out in SimpleUnits


  • Collection
  • Any identifiable grouping of instances. For instance, a jury is a collection of people.

    EXAMPLES: A jury is a group of people, a financial ledger is a collection of transaction entries; a route is an (ordered) collection of segments.

  • Controlled Vocabulary
  • SubClass of

    A collection of terms approved and managed by some organization or person.

  • Taxonomy
  • SubClass of

    A controlled vocabulary arranged as a hierarchy of concepts.

  • Group
  • SubClass of

    A collection of People. The group may or may not be an Organization. Many organizations consist of groups of people, but that is not a defining characteristic.

  • Ordered Collection
  • SubClass of

    A collection where the members are in a fixed sequence.

  • Geo Route
  • SubClass of

    An ordered set of GeoPoints that defines a path from starting point to ending point.

  • Ordinal Collection
  • SubClass of

    A controlled vocabulary arranged as a hierarchy of concepts.

  • Commitment
  • An obligation (possibly unilateral).

  • Agreement
  • SubClass of

    A contract or other binding agreement, usually evidenced by signature(s).

  • Account
  • SubClass of

    An agreement having a balance, as in a bank account, or credit card account, or Accounts Receivable account.

  • Contingent Obligation
  • SubClass of

    An obligation that is not yet firm. There is some contingent event, the occurrence of which will cause the obligation to become firm.

    NOTE: A contingent obligation might have a getter counterparty (as in the case of insurance); but it might not (as in the case of an offer).

  • Offer
  • SubClass of

    A commitment to buy or sell a described or identified part or service.

  • Obligation
  • SubClass of

    A future commitment from one organization or person to another. Contracts are sets of obligations to do or forebear, or to indemnify or warrant.

    NOTE: Obligations will often be governed by some Agreement or Offer.


  • Content
  • A document, program, image, etc. (Important: Categories are not content until they are written down.)

  • Address
  • SubClass of

    A reference to a place (real or virtual) that can be located by some routing algorithm, and where messages or things can be sent to or retrieved from. E.g. PO Box or URL to a pdf file.

  • Building Address
  • SubClass of

    An address to which you can send mail, or that you could find in the physical world.

  • Electronic Message Address
  • SubClass of

    Any place an electronic message (email, fax, etc.) can be sent.

  • Postal Address
  • SubClass of

    A set of codes the postal authorities can use to deliver physical mail.

    EXAMPLES: a street address, a PO Box, an FPO code, or the route codes.

  • Telephone Number
  • SubClass of

    A numeric code a telephonic device uses for contacting another telephonic device.

    EXAMPLES: Mobile, fax, or landline phone number.

  • Content Expression
  • SubClass of

    Intellectual Property reduced to text, audio etc. If it contains text (written or spoken), it may be in a language.

  • Formatted Content
  • SubClass of

    Content which is in a particular format. (E.g., html, pdf, jpg.)

  • Message
  • SubClass of

    A specific instance of content sent from an Organization, Person, or Application to at least one other Organization, Person, or Application.

    EXAMPLES: An email message, a phone call, a voice message, or a Web Service message.

  • Rendered Content
  • SubClass of

    Content which has been expressed, either to print, or through speakers, or on a monitor.

  • ID
  • SubClass of

    EXAMPLE: e.g. SSN for a person, serial number for a product, employee ID

  • Text
  • SubClass of

    Content expressed as words and numbers (not graphics).


  • Geo Point
  • An individual point on the Earth's surface, identified by latitude, longitude and altitude. If altitude is missing, it is assumed to be at the Earth's surface. However, altitude is measured from sea level. these points are to the WGS-84 coordinate system using the GPS decimal lat/long

    NOTE: Assume coordinate system used by Google (WGS 84 Web Mercator).


  • Geo Region
  • A bounded region (or set of regions) on the surface of the Earth.

    EXAMPLES: The bounded shape that defines the region occupied by Crater Lake; the bounded area known as the contiguous USA.

    NOTE: A GeoRegion could be non-contiguous; e.g. the region governed by the USA is the region governed by the lower 48 states plus that of Alaska and Hawaii. Child classes in lower ontologies can make this distinction.

    NOTE: A GeoRegion has an area, but it is not itself an instance of the Area class. (Area in gist is a magnitude).

  • Time Zone
  • SubClass of

    A region that observes a uniform standard time for legal, commercial, and social purposes. A typical time zone averages 15? of longitude in width and typically observes a clock time one hour earlier than the zone immediately to the east.


  • Geo Segment
  • A single portion of a GeoRegion which has been divided (i.e., segmented).


  • Geo Volume
  • A three-dimensional space on or near the surface of the Earth, such as an oil reservoir, the body of a lake, or an airspace.


  • Intellectual Property
  • A work, invention or concept, independent of its being expressed in text, audio, video, image, or live performance. IP can also be tacit knowledge, know-how, or skill. Also includes Brands.

    EXAMPLES: ?The Old Man and The Sea?; the Page Rank algorithm; Coca Cola

    NOTE: For literature this could be called the ?Work?, except that ?work? is a highly overloaded term (expenditure of energy, resource consumption, art). Often the first expression precedes our recognition of the IP, but subsequent expressions are known to be derivatives of the IP, even if they are expression-to-expression translations (or copies).


  • Intention
  • Goal, desire, aspiration. This is the "teleologic" aspect of the system that indicates things are done with a purpose.

  • Goal
  • SubClass of

    A specific intentional endpoint. One can tell whether it has been achieved, as opposed to an intention, which may not have an evaluation function.

  • Permission
  • A description of things one is permitted to do. This could be broad, such as free speech, but more often is very specific, such as the right of egress through a particular property.

  • Requirement
  • SubClass of

    A specific intentional endpoint. One can tell whether it has been achieved, as opposed to an intention, which may not have an evaluation function.

  • Specification
  • SubClass of

    A set of requirements to be satisfied by a material, design, product, or service.

  • Catalog Item
  • SubClass of

    A description of a product or service to be delivered, given in a sufficient level of detail that a receiver could determine whether delivery constituted discharge of the obligation to deliver.

    NOTE: In short, an unambiguous characterization of what it is that a potential buyer is paying for.

  • Bundled Catalog Item
  • SubClass of

    Any combination of descriptions of things offered together. Could be a kit (several parts offered together), but could also be a product plus a warranty.

  • Product Specification
  • SubClass of

    Offering something which could be physically warehoused or digitally stored.

  • Service Specification
  • SubClass of

    A description of something that can be done for a person or organization (which produces some form of an act).

  • Contract Term
  • SubClass of

    A specification of some aspect of a contract.

  • Time Zone Standard
  • SubClass of

    The algorithm for getting from Greenwich Mean Time to local time, which includes the time zone offset and rules about daylight savings time.

  • Restriction
  • A description of things one is prevented from doing. Most laws are restrictions.


  • Language
  • A recognized, organized set of symbols and grammar.

    EXAMPLES: Natural languages such as English and Spanish; computer languages such as OWL, Python, and XML.


  • Magnitude
  • Base class for units which can be converted. The primitive units can be converted from one measurement system to another; the complex units (ratio or product) have to decompose to their primitives.

    NOTE: Magnitudes of the same dimensional type (i.e., duration or electric current) can be compared with a greater-than or less-than operator, but can still differ in their relationToTheWorld type. (I.e., you can compare actuals to estimates or references, so long as the dimension is the same.)

    NOTE: Note the precision should be in the same type of unit as the magnitude.

  • Area
  • SubClass of

    A measurement of two-dimensional space.

  • Balance
  • SubClass of

    An amount decremented or incremented by a series of transactions.

  • Count
  • SubClass of

    A measure that involves countable amounts (?eaches? as well as cases, etc.). Can be decimal.

    NOTE: Count is not disjoint with all the other magnitudes, as there are some magnitudes that could conceivably be counted.

  • Duration
  • SubClass of

    Time, but not on a timeline.

    EXAMPLE: One week (or seven days), but not Jan 1, 2008 to Jan 7, 2008 (which is an interval). Intervals have durations, but are not themselves durations.

  • Electric Current
  • SubClass of

    A flow of electric charge.

  • Extent
  • SubClass of

    A measure of distance, which could be distances over the Earth, and could also be height, width, length, depth, girth, etc.

  • Information Quantity
  • SubClass of

    An amount of data, such as 6 petabytes, or 640KB.

  • Luminous Intensity
  • SubClass of

    A measure of the wavelength-weighted power emitted by a light source in a particular direction per unit solid angle. This is based on the luminosity function, a standardized model of the sensitivity of the human eye.

  • Molar Quantity
  • SubClass of

    Amount of a substance, as counted molecules.

  • Monetary
  • SubClass of

    A special type of magnitude, due to the way rounding is handled in math and the temporal aspect of conversion.

  • Product Magnitude
  • SubClass of

    A magnitude expressed as a product of primitives. (E.g., Force = M*A).

  • Ratio Magnitude
  • SubClass of

    This is a number whose unit of measure is a ratio.

    EXAMPLE: Speed. The ratio magnitude is 60, the unit of measure might be MilesPerHour.

    NOTE: A RatioMagnitude just has one decimal value.

  • Percentage
  • SubClass of

    A ratio where the numerator and denominator are of the same unit of measure.

    NOTE: there are various ways to represent percentage: 50/100 could be represented as ?50? or ?0.5?. gist uses the latter, as it involves fewer conversions for subsequent use.

  • Reference Value
  • SubClass of

    A measure that was neither measured nor estimated but set by fiat. For instance, a goal. There is no Measurement associated with a ReferenceValue.

  • Temperature
  • SubClass of

    The degree or intensity of heat present in a substance or object, especially as expressed according to a comparative scale.

  • Volume
  • SubClass of

    Three-dimensional space, or equivalent fluid measurement.

  • Weight
  • SubClass of

    Magnitude of mass. Assumes object is near the Earth's surface. Thus weight and mass may be treated as equivalents.


  • Organization
  • A generic organization that can be formal or informal, legal or non-legal. It can have members, or not.

    EXAMPLES: Legal entities like companies; non-legal entities like clubs, committees, or departments.

    NOTE: There are a plethora of different kinds of organizations that differ along many facets, including members, structure, purpose, legal vs. non-legal, etc.

  • Governement Organization
  • SubClass of

    An organization established either by fiat (as a conquering army overtakes a land and declares a government) or by delegation from a fiat government, such as a state or local government or a specific agency. Differs from a corporation in that it cannot be owned.

    EXAMPLES: The State of Washington Office of Financial Management; the Food and Drug Administration; the Scottish Parliament.

    NOTE: Establishment by a CountryGovernment may be indirect via local, regional, or national GovernmentOrganization(s) that ultimately are recognized by a CountryGovernment.

  • Country Government
  • SubClass of

    The geopolitical body that runs a geopolitical region recognized as a country.


  • Physical Identifiable Item
  • EXAMPLES: a computer, a book.

    NEGATIVE EXAMPLE: A discontinuous thing like a manufacturing line cannot reasonably have an RFID attached to it, even though its parts are not the same kind of thing as the whole.

    NOTE: You could, at least in principle, put an RFID tag on members of this class. Physical things are made of something. E.g., statues are made of bronze.

    NOTE: In practice, this always means that the parts are not the same kind of thing as the whole.

  • Landmark
  • SubClass of

    Something permanently attached to the Earth.

  • Building
  • SubClass of

    A man-made structure for dwelling or working.

  • Living Thing
  • SubClass of

    Something that is now, or at some point in time was, alive and growing.

    EXAMPLES: A cat, a mushroom, a tree.

    NEGATIVE EXAMPLES: fictional life forms such as Unicorns or Mickey Mouse.

    NOTE: In the open world, you must assume that it might have since died.

  • Person
  • SubClass of

    NEGATIVE EXAMPLE: fictional characters.


  • Physical Substance
  • EXAMPLES: An amount of water, of penicillin, of sand, of gold.

    NOTE: An instance of this class must be a physical thing, and not just a categorical description. Example: an actual piece of gold, not ?gold? as a concept.

    NOTE: Some things are substances at a macro level, but ultimately end up as not being divisible into the same kind of thing. E.g. sand vs. grains of sand., bacteria vs. an individual bacterium.


  • PhysicalThing

  • Place

  • Room
  • An enclosed area within a building.


  • SchemaMetaData
  • Superclass for all types of metadata, including owl concepts (such as class) and relational (tables, elements) and tool related (queries, RWRML maps etc etc)


  • Social Being
  • A Person or an Organization.

    NOTE: Includes anything than can be party to an Agreement (e.g. Contract). But not all SocialBeing(s) can be parties to all Agreement(s). For example, minors can be beneficiaries, but perhaps not primary signatories on contracts.


  • Template
  • Something used to make instances in its own image. In manufacturing this would be specialized as a die to make stamped parts, cookie cutters are templates for cookies, and forms are templates for data.

    EXAMPLE: A form. A filled-in form has the structure of the form with data entered into some or all of the fields.

    NOTE: Use gist:basedOn to link the instantiation of a template back to its Template.

  • TemplateTask
  • SubClass of

    A prototypical task of a particular type, that will, when instantiated, generate an actual (unscheduled) task.


  • Time Instant
  • In gistTop all time instants are greenwich and the local equal universal. In gistTime we introduce local time zones

    EXAMPLES: A literal instant (as in 12:01.0001 January 1, 2008), or a broader but still single point in time (January 1, 2008). In the latter case, we are declaring a time instant to be an interval with no duration (or really a duration only equal to its precision).

    NOTE: Our identity criteria require that something refers to each Time Instant instance.

  • DateInstant
  • SubClass of

    A point in time known only to the accuracy of one day. Say the signing of the declaration of US independence on 7/4/1776

  • GreenwichInstant
  • SubClass of

    By default time instants are expressed in grenich, if you need to be explicit (to calculate offset for instance)

  • HumanInstant
  • SubClass of

    A point in time known only to the accuracy of one minute. For things like calendar appointments and time reporting

  • LocalInstant
  • SubClass of

    A point in time expressed relative to a local time zone. Can be converted to Universal Time using the time zone offset. The precision is used to state how precise this instant is. Typical values would be day, hour, minute or second.

  • SystemInstant
  • SubClass of

    A point in time known to the accuracy of a millisecond. For posting transacion recorded on times


  • Time Interval
  • EXAMPLE: Jan 1 through Jan 8, 2013.

    NEGATIVE EXAMPLE: "8:00am" (with no date).

    NOTE: The end should be later than the start, but this is not enforced via OWL.

    NOTE: While Time Interval has a Duration, it is not itself a Duration.

  • Event
  • SubClass of

    Something happening over some period of time, often characterized as some kind of activity being carried out by some person, organization, or software application.

  • Contemporaneous Event
  • SubClass of

    An event that actually started after the present time. When we record an end time it ceases to be contemporaneous

    NOTE: All contemporaneous events eventually end and, due to the nature of the open world, we can never be sure that a contemporaneous event hasn't ended. As a result, this is really a contemporaneous and historical event.


  • Contingent Event
  • SubClass of

    An event with a probability of happening in the future, and usually dependent upon some other event or condition.


  • Historical Event
  • SubClass of

    An event which occurred in time, with an actual end earlier than the present moment.


  • Physical Event
  • SubClass of

    An event that can be said to have occurred at some place in space.


  • Planned Event
  • SubClass of

    An event which, at the time it is created, is to occur in the future.


  • Scheduled Task
  • SubClass of

    A task planned to occur. When it was scheduled, it would have been in the future, but now might be in the past.


  • Task
  • SubClass of

    A task which has been defined and either scheduled or accomplished, or both.

  • Project
  • SubClass of

    A project is a task (usually a longer duration task) made up of other tasks.

  • Scheduled Task
  • SubClass of

    A task planned to occur. When it was scheduled, it would have been in the future, but now might be in the past.


  • Transaction
  • SubClass of

    An event which has an effect on at least one accumulator.


  • TemporalRelation
  • SubClass of

    A relationship existing for a period of time.

    EXAMPLES: employs-Employment, hasStreetAddress-EstablishedLocation. One important context for reifying a property.

    NOTE: A temporal relation must be gist:connectedTo a minimum of two objects. For example, a temporal relation representing a period of employment is connected both to the person and to the role/position they held.



  • Unit of Measure
  • Product Unit
  • SubClass of

    A unit of measure that is the product of two simpler ones.

    EXAMPLES: Area and Volume are the classic cases. But other, more exotic cases exist, such as Newtons.

  • Area Unit
  • SubClass of

    A unit of two-dimensional area, such as square inches or hectares.

  • Coherent Product Unit
  • SubClass of

    A ratio unit whos numerator and denominator reduce to 1

  • Volume Unit
  • SubClass of

    Units of three-dimensional space, expressed here as an area times a distance.

  • Ratio Unit
  • SubClass of

    A UnitOfMeasure composed of a numerator unit and a denominator unit.

    EXAMPLE: Miles per hour.

    NOTE: If needed, a conversion factor for a RatioUnit can be (recursively) derived from the conversion factors of the numerator and denominator units. E.g., the derived conversion factor from km/minute to meters/second is 1000/60 or 16 2/3.

  • Coherent Ratio Unit
  • SubClass of

    A ratio unit whos numerator and denominator reduce to 1

  • Simple Unit Of Measure
  • SubClass of

    Each simple unit has a base unit and a conversion factor to the base. The bases are from the System International (SI). This is the number by which one multiplies a Unit by to get to base, or divides by to get from base. So the convertToBase for inch is 0.0254 to get you to the base (meter).

  • BaseUnit
  • A primitive unit that cannot be decomposed into other units. It can be converted from one measurement system to another. The base units in gist are the seven primitive units from the System Internationale (SI): (meter, second, kilogram, ampere, kelvin, mole, candela), plus three convenience ones: each. bit and usDollar.


  • CountingUnit
  • A unit of counting, especially ?each?, but also units such as dozens.


  • CurrencyUnit
  • A unit of money. Note: this is the only unit whose conversion factors include time (i.e., the conversion rates change on a daily basis).


  • DataSizeUnit
  • A unit to measure amounts of digital information.


  • DistanceUnit
  • A unit to measure linear distance, such as feet or kilometers.


  • DurationUnit
  • A unit to measure passage of time: hours, days, years.


  • ElectricalCurrentUnit
  • Unit of electrical current, which is charge per unit time. The SI unit is the ampere. (Note that electrical current is a composed unit.)


  • LuminousIntensityUnit
  • The measure of brightness. The SI unit is the candela.


  • MassUnit
  • A unit representing the amount of matter in a particle or object. The SI unit of mass is the kilogram.

    NOTE: Assuming an object is near the Earth's surface, weight and mass may be treated as equivalents.


  • MoleUnit
  • Amount of chemical material. Measured in Avogadro units (moles) of 6.02 x 10^23 molecules.


  • TemperatureUnit
  • Unit of measurement for expressing temperature. Per SI, the base of temperature is in Kelvin, to allow for all units to be expressed relative to a real (in this case absolute) zero.




    Data Types Properties

    containedText encryptedText conversionOffset convertToStandard convertToBase decimalValue epoch latitude localDate localDateTime localTime name sequence uniqueText unitSymbol unitSymbolHTML unitSymbolUnicode universalDate universalDateTime universalTime


  • containedText
  • Links to the string corresponding to Text

    SubProperty of

  • encryptedText
  • Links to the string corresponding to EncryptedText

  • conversionOffset
  • Add this number to get to the zero point. On the Celsius scale, the conversionOffset is -273.15 degrees C. On the Fahrenheit scale it is -459.67 degrees. Is equal to 0 when the unit has the same zero point as the base unit. e.g. inch, meter.


  • convertToStandard
  • Note this kind of conversion will only work with temperatures if they are in Kelvin or Rankine (with a true 0). You multiple to get to the base, divide to go from the base. mph to mps is .44704. The multiple from kph to mps is .277778 . To convert 60 mph to kph is (60 * .44704 / .277778 or 96.56056 kph

    SubProperty of

  • convertToBase
  • The conversion factor used to get to the base unit. E.g., multiplying by 0.0254 gets you from inches to meters. Divide by this number to go the other way. Used in conjunction with conversionOffset to convert from one unit to another. Degrees K = (Degrees F - conversionOffset) * convertToBase. Or K = (F-(-469.67)) * (5/9). To go the other way: F = (K * 9/5) -469.67. Try it on Google.


  • decimalValue

  • epoch
  • seconds since 1/1/1970 UTC (unix time )


  • latitude

  • localDate

  • localDateTime

  • localTime

  • longitude

  • name
  • Relates an individual to a casual name. NOTE: For more formal use, consider using a sub property of the object property, identifiedBy.


  • sequence
  • For ordering ordered lists.


  • uniqueText
  • FUNCTIONAL

    This is used for the actual value of a key or ID where you don't want the possibility of having more than one.


  • unitSymbol
  • The standard symbol for the unit NOT using any special characters. E.g. square meter would be m^2 rather than m?.


  • unitSymbolHTML
  • The standard symbol for the unit in HTML format for pretty printing, may use special characters. E.g. to show square meter as m? rather than m^2, the value of this property would be "m²" This is for when Unicode not supported and the display will be HTML format.


  • unitSymbolUnicode
  • The standard symbol for the unit preferred for pretty printing, may use special characters. E.g. square meter would be m? rather than m^2.


  • universalDate

  • universalDateTime

  • universalTime


  • Instances

    owl:Thing

    _ampere
    _bit
    _candela
    _each
    _Euros
    _greenwichTimeZone
    _kelvin
    _kilogram
    _meter
    _mole
    _one_day
    _one_millisecond
    _one_minute
    _second
    _unitedNations
    _USDollar


  • _ampere

  • _bit

  • _candela

  • _each

  • _Euros

  • _greenwichTimeZone

  • _kelvin

  • _kilogram

  • _meter

  • _mole

  • _one_day

  • _one_millisecond

  • _one_minute

  • _second

  • _unitedNations

  • _USDollar


  • Annotation property hierarchy

    name owl:backwardCompatibleWith owl:deprecated owl:incompatibleWith owl:priorVersion owl:versionInfo rdfs:comment rdfs:isDefinedBy rdfs:label rdfs:seeAlso


  • name
  • Relates an individual to a casual name.
    NOTE: For more formal use, consider using a sub property of the object property, identifiedBy.


  • owl:backwardCompatibleWith


  • owl:deprecated


  • owl:incompatibleWith


  • owl:priorVersion


  • owl:versionInfo


  • rdfs:comment


  • rdfs:isDefinedBy


  • rdfs:label


  • rdfs:seeAlso



  • Data Types

    owl:rational owl:real rdf:PlainLiteral rdf:XMLLiteral rdfs:Literal xsd:anyURI xsd:base64Binary xsd:boolean xsd:byte xsd:dateTime xsd:dateTimeStamp xsd:decimal xsd:double xsd:float xsd:hexBinary xsd:int xsd:integer xsd:language xsd:long xsd:Name xsd:NCName xsd:negativeInteger xsd:NMTOKEN xsd:nonNegativeInteger xsd:nonPositiveInteger xsd:normalizedString xsd:positiveInteger xsd:short xsd:string xsd:token xsd:unsignedByte xsd:unsignedInt xsd:unsignedLong xsd:unsignedShort


    owl:rational
    http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#rational

    owl:real
    http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#real

    rdf:PlainLiteral
    http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#PlainLiteral

    rdf:XMLLiteral
    http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#XMLLiteral

    rdfs:Literal
    http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#Literal

    xsd:anyURI
    http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#anyURI

    xsd:base64Binary
    http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#base64Binary

    xsd:boolean
    http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#boolean

    xsd:byte
    http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#byte

    xsd:dateTime
    http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime

    xsd:dateTimeStamp
    http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTimeStamp

    xsd:decimal
    http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#decimal

    xsd:double
    http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#double

    xsd:float
    http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#float

    xsd:hexBinary
    http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#hexBinary

    xsd:int
    http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#int

    xsd:integer
    http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#integer

    xsd:language
    http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#language

    xsd:long
    http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#long

    xsd:Name
    http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#Name

    xsd:NCName
    http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#NCName

    xsd:negativeInteger
    http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#negativeInteger

    xsd:NMTOKEN
    http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#NMTOKEN

    xsd:nonNegativeInteger
    http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#nonNegativeInteger

    xsd:nonPositiveInteger
    http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#nonNegativeInteger

    xsd:normalizedString
    http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#normalizedInteger

    xsd:positiveInteger
    http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#positiveInteger

    xsd:short
    http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#short

    xsd:string
    http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string

    xsd:token
    http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#token

    xsd:unsignedByte
    http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#sunsignedByte

    xsd:unsignedInt
    http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#unsignedInt

    xsd:unsignedLong
    http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#unsignedLong

    xsd:unsignedShort
    http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#unsignedShort





    The Gist Accounting ontology

    For the Financial World


    Find out more available semantics for Accounting and Finance domains. As they are included in the gist:Accounting ontology.



    Let us know about you!

    Contact us







    Semantic Logo